Pet and Wildlife Concerns

We recommend using  Kaput® Rat, Mouse & Vole Bait with our Vole Control Bait Station System.  The Kaput bait is registered for vole control in all 50 states and with Warfarin as the active ingredient, it is plenty toxic for voles and other rodents, yet it is the least toxic poison bait to non-target animals (Rodents are more susceptible to warfarin, the active ingredient in Kaput® Rat, Mouse & Vole Bait than other mammals).  The directions for use of the bait indicate to use with a bait station.  One of the main reasons I designed the Vole Control Bait Station System was to create a safer and better way to apply a poison bait for the control of voles.  Specifically designed for the behavior and activity of voles, the System is much more effective and safer than placing loose bait into vole entrance holes or runways where a non-target animal may easily reach it.

Disclaimer:  I cannot claim the bait stations are completely tamper resistant and anytime you use a pesticide you need to be cautious, especially when children and pets are around. That said, please continue reading below about the bait toxicity and consider my personal experience and recommendation at the bottom of this page. 

The Least Toxic Vole Bait to Non-Target Animals

  • For example, a 50 lb. dog would have to consume 4 to 8 ounces of competitor rodenticides to be lethal while it would have to consume 113.5 ounces (a little over 7 lbs.) of the Kaput product.
  • The active ingredient, Warfarin, is less likely to result in a "secondary kill", that is, another animal being poisoned from eating a vole poisoned with Kaput. Warfarin is metabolized in about 42 hours, meaning that the poison should no longer be active in the tissues. A vole may not even be dead before the active ingredient is out of its system.
  • Voles, being a small animal, do not consume a large amount of bait, so even before it is metabolized there will not be much in its system.
  • In over 19 years, Scimetrics, manufacturer of Kaput, has never had a report of a secondary kill from another animal consuming a rodent that has eaten the bait.


See charts below for more information.


Packet of Kaput Vole BaitKaput® Rat, Mouse & Vole Bait (EPA Reg. No. 72500-06) is an anticoagulant rodenticide with 0.025% Warfarin. Rodents are more susceptible to warfarin, the active ingredient in Kaput® Rat, Mouse & Vole Bait than other mammals.

The Kaput® Vole Bait is made up of eight grains that are palatable and easy to manipulate by voles. Acceptance of the grains is better than pelleted baits and its efficacy is 94.7%. It contains a special attractant so even the pickiest vole will find the bait attractive.

Voles will begin to die 4 to 5 days after feeding begins so bait shyness is not a problem.

Click Here to view the Kaput label [pdf] and the MSDS sheet [pdf]

Each packet contains two ounces of bait. It is recommended to use 3 tablespoons of bait in each Vole Control Bait Station. Approximately 12 ounces will control one Hotspot of vole activity.


Toxicity of Various Rodenticides to Dogs (50 lb.) 
Active Ingredient VS Amount of Eaten Bait to Attain Mortality

Brodifacoum 0.25 mg/kg 
    Talon, Final 0.005%
4.1 ounces
Bromadiolone 0.3 
    Contrac, Maki 0.005%
4.9 ounces
Difethialone 0.25 
    Generation 0.0025%
8.1 ounces
    Rozol 0.005%
8.0 ounces
Warfarin 20-50 
    Kaput 0.025%
113.50 ounces
Prevention and Control of Wildlife Damage, University of Nebraska


If Your Pet Consumes Poison Bait:

If your pet were to consume enough of the bait, the animal would become sickly and lethargic and its gums would bleed (the saliva would look pink). You would need to get the animal to the vet right away for vitamin K, which would stop the effect of the poison.

Data from an EPA Report

How warfarin poses a lower risk factor to non-target animals when compared to other commonly used rodenticides.

A recent rodenticide risk assessment draft report published by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, presented warfarin as the lowest risk to mammals and birds of the anticoagulants. Warfarin remains as an effective choice for rodent control in the U.S. Numerous reports from professionals around the country support this claim. Laboratory and field studies in the US have substantiated the fact that warfarin resistance to rodents is not an issue of concern.


Comparative analysis of overall risk to birds and mammals. Liver Retention Times of anticoaulants in mammals
Secondary Toxicity studies with carnivores and anticoagulants Overviews if rodenticide comparative ecological assessment.


This chart shows that Warfarin is the lowest risk to non-target animals of any of the other rodenticide baits. Also, it has the lowest secondary risk to birds and mammals. Secondary risks refers to the effects of the poison on an mammal or bird that eats a rodent that has consumed the bait. Warfarin has the least effect on secondary animals.


Bar Graph of Risk of Various Types of Bait on Birds and Mammals


My Personal Experiences & Recommendation

We care about wildlife and we love our pets too and understand the concern and encourage caution in deciding whether or not to use a poison bait around them. All pets are different. I advise some thought about your pet's particular behavior.


Dogs – If you have a dog that destroys objects and chews things up as puppies often do, I would consider this behavior in your decision. If destructive behavior is the case, I would advise keeping a close eye on the stations and your dog in the first few days after installation. In addition, anytime you monitor the stations with the dog around take note whether they show any interest. Additionally, it is not likely that a well-fed dog would eat a vole, but they may kill them for sport. Keep in mind the low toxicity of the bait, the small amount a vole consumes and that there is an antidote to the active ingredient, Warfarin, which is Vitamin K.


Cats – We have a couple of cats and they are great for helping keep a small vole population down. If you are worried about your cat consuming voles poisoned with Kaput, keep in mind that the voles, being very small, ingest very little of the bait and it is metabolized and out of its system very quickly. Even if the vole has a full belly of bait, your cat (or any other animal) would have to consume a hefty amount of voles to have any adverse effect. And again, Warfarin does have an antidote.


Wildlife Concern – First, use a bait station for placement of bait. Second, use the least toxic poison (Kaput Rat, Mouse and Vole Bait) to avoid secondary kills. You can read more on wildlife concerns in this recent blog post.


Still have concerns? Feel free to contact us.


Marshall H. Warren – President – Vole Control, Inc.